About Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) / Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD)
Once thought to be a type of multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are variants of a distinctive but rare autoimmune disease.
NMO is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized mainly by attacks (relapses) of swelling and damage in the optic nerves (optic neuritis or ON) and spinal cord (transverse myelitis or TM).
Are There Therapies For NMO?According to the Guthy Jackson Foundation, there are no NMO-specific therapies, at this time. Drugs used to treat NMO are approved to treat conditions other than NMO but may be recommended by a neurologist or NMO specialist.
Acute NMO relapses or attacks are often treated with Corticosteroids (steroid treatment) or Plasmapheresis (the removal of antibodies from the blood stream).
The symptoms of NMO can vary from person to person in disability, duration and severity.
Generally, NMO symptoms begin rapidly.
After the initial attack, NMO follows an unpredictable course, and time to remission and relapse can vary.
Recurring episodes of optic neuritis and/or transverse myelitis can be weeks to months in duration, and in some very unusual cases can last years.
Symptoms can be temporary and resolve fully or partially in some patients. However, recurring relapses can lead to an accumulation of disability over time.
NMO is most commonly characterized by;
Rapid onset of eye pain or loss of vision (optic neuritis).
Limb weakness, numbness, or partial paralysis (transverse myelitis).
- Shooting pain or tingling in the neck, back, or abdomen.
- Loss of bowel and bladder control.
- Prolonged nausea, vomiting, or hiccups.
What Causes NMO?
At present, the specific cause(s) of NMO are unknown. However, most experts believe that NMO results from a dysfunction in immune tolerance, which is the immune system’s ability to distinguish one’s own cells or proteins from potentially foreign materials. It is believed that autoreactive T and B cells, autoantibody, complement and leukocytes play a role in NMO. Importantly, antibodies against aquaporin-4 (Aq4ab) within the central nervous system are highly specific for NMO. https://guthyjacksonfoundation.org/nmo-faqs/
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ENDECE Approach To Remyelination
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A new drug with the potential to induce remyelination, the process for restoring and repairing the myelin sheath in demyelinating diseases including multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and osmotic demyelination syndrome.
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